Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Roderick Chisholm on freedom of the will Essay -- essays research pape

There is much debate over the issue of whether we have complete freedom of the will or if our will caused by something other than our own choosing. There are three positions adopted by philosophers regarding this dispute: determinism, libertarianism, and compatibilism. Determinists believe that freedom of the will does not exist. Since actions are events that have some predetermined cause, no actions can be chosen and thus there is no will to choose. The compatibilist argues that you can have both freedom of the will and determinism. If the causes which led to our actions were different, then we could have acted in another way which is compatible with freedom of the will. Libertarians believe that freedom of the will does exist.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Roderick Chisholm defends Libertarianism, and in his essay â€Å"Human Freedom and The Self† argues that we have freedom of the will. Chisholm does not abandon the idea of causes but instead defines two types of causation. The first is transeunt causation where one event or state of affairs causes another event or state of affairs. This causation is based on a relationship between events. The second is immanent causation where an agent causes an event or state of affairs. An agent is an uncaused causer of events who is not bound by the laws of nature. This causation is based on the relationship between an agent and an event. Chisholm quotes a passage from Aristotle to demonstrate his immanent causation, â€Å"Thus, a staff moves a...

Monday, January 13, 2020

Features of Temperate Forests

The temperate forest is an area of the world that has high levels of precipitation and humidity. They contain a wide variety of deciduous trees, which are trees that lose their leaves in the winter. The temperatures of the temperate forests vary based on the four seasons. It is typically hot in the summer with high temperatures of 86 degrees and cold in the winter. These areas receive large amounts of precipitation in the form of rain and snow. Eastern Asia, Central and Western Europe, and the Eastern United States are some areas of the world that are made up of this type of biome. Since there are large amounts of rainfall in the temperate forest regions there is a wide variety of plant life in the temperate forests. There plants can be considered the producers for this biome and include maple trees, walnut trees, birch trees, dogwoods, redbuds, azaleas, mountain laurel, huckleberries, blue bead lily, indian cucumber, linchens, and mosses. These different plants are divided into several layers including the forest canopy, small tree, shrubs, herbs, and floor tier. There are also a wide variety of animals that live in the temperate forest region including insects and spiders, wolves, foxes, bears, coyotes, bobcats, mountain lions, eagles, rabbits, deer, skunks, squirrels, raccoons, squirrels, moose, and hummingbirds. Many of these animals hibernate during the winter in order to survive in the cold temperatures and wake up in the spring when there is more food. available. Some store food and burrow underground and some migrate to warmer regions to escape the cold in the winter time. These animals can be considered the consumers of this specific environment. In the winter the leaves fall off of the trees. In the spring time the sunlight quickly warms the plants that grow on the ground since there is a lack of shade. These plants take advantage of the abundance of sunlight because once the leaves grow back on the trees photosynthesis does not occur as quickly and their food supply goes down. In the spring the animals that have been hibernating for the entire winter wake up and begin to search for food again. The vegetation of the temperate forest is a major food source for many of these animals. One major threat to the temperate forests of the world is development and agriculture. Since this region receives plenty of rainfall and has soil that is ideal for planting it is the main environment for humans to occupy. Forests are chopped down to create housing and roadways and the plants and animals that live there are affected. Another threat to this type or environment is logging. The large amount of hardwood trees are cut down in order to make lumber. These trees are denser than other types of trees and therefore they grow much more slowly. Another threat for this region is acid rain that is caused by burning coal. This creates global warming which changes the rainfall patterns and affects the vegetation of the area. All of these threats affect the biodiversity of the entire system. The changing rainfall patterns, logging, and construction affect the vegetation, which is a major food source for the animals that live in these regions. Some abiotic factors of the temperate forest include temperature, water, cloud cover, soil, and light. These abiotic factors play a major role in the forest and affect all of the living creatures that live there. The temperature in the temperate forest are typically mild and comfortable. This is because of the moist air from the Pacific Ocean. The summers are normally hot and the winters are cold. There is plenty of rainfall in this area. Other forms of precipitation include ice and snow. This is a very foggy region due to all of the moisture even in the dry season. This area contains large amount of nutrient rich soil since there are large amounts of decaying organic matter from the leaves that fall from the trees and dead vegetation. The large amount of rainfall and nutrient rich soil allows trees to grow very tall and plants to be plentiful. Even though much of the sunlight in these areas is blocked by clouds and fog the vegetation still thrives.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Importance of Brackets in Virginia Woolfs To The Lighthouse

Importance of Brackets in To The Lighthouse [Here Mr. Carmichael, who was reading Virgil, blew out his candle. It was midnight.] [Mr. Ramsay, stumbling along a passage one dark morning, stretched his arms out, but Mrs. Ramsay having died rather suddenly the night before, his arms, though stretched out, remained empty.] [Prue Ramsay died that summer in some illness connected with childbirth, which was indeed a tragedy, people said, everything, they said, had promised so well.] [A shell exploded. Twenty or thirty young men were blown up in France, among them Andrew Ramsay, whose death, mercifully, was instantaneous.] [Mr. Carmichael brought out a volume of poems that spring, which had an unexpected success. The war, people†¦show more content†¦Carmichael, who like to lie awake a little reading Virgil, kept his candle burning rather longer than the rest (125). This is foreshadowing, because he is the character in the brackets who lives and prospers after the war - Mrs. Ramsay, Andrew, and Prue all die within the confines those brackets - so Carmichaels candle burns rather longer. The narrative discourse of each death in brackets 2-4 has its own tone, as though each were told by a different person. In the second, where Mr. Ramsay stumbles around after Mrs. Ramsay has died, sounds like family mythology. His dependence upon her is so well-known that of course the effects of her death would be devastating upon him. Yet he did not seem to cope with life very well even before she died. In the novels first section, he storms around the house, wondering if he will have a legacy, not connecting with anyone but his wife. Has he really changed from the first section of the book to the third? No. He still blusters and orders people to do his bidding. In the third bracket, which tells of Prues death, the tone implies vagueness, as though there were a scandal or secret attached to it. Connected with childbirth might connote abortion or miscarriage, and the string of words, which was indeed a tragedy, people said, everything, they said, had promised so well might indicate that it looked as though (promised) Prue could beShow MoreRelatedFishing For The Meaning Of Life1878 Words   |  8 Pagesof Life How Virginia Woolf Explores Universal Truths â€Å"Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. While the ultimate moral of this saying is that teaching as opposed to providing direct relief is more beneficial for the student in the long run, the saying also suggests that the teacher’s contributions will transcend his or her lifetime. Similarly, the concept of transcendency is explored in Virginia Woolf’s novel To the Lighthouse as Woolf delves

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Shaping American Cultures - 2166 Words

Throughout the 1960s there was a cultural phenomenon that started in the United States and spread like wildfire to multiple other cultures in the world. This phenomenon was also known as countercultures. This decade raised the 76.4 million Americans born during the baby boom generation. The babies of this boom entered their teen years during the 1960s and they definitely embraced a multitude new standards, dramatically different from the way their parents were raised. While some encompassed new ideals in dress, music and movies others joined countercultures and rebelled against the social norms with poetry, novels and art. Three of the most altering countercultures were the Hippies, the Sexual Revolution and the Gay Liberation. These three countercultures emerged around the same time, but had prominently different agendas and played huge roles in shaping the American culture. What effects did the Hippies, Sexual Revolution and the Gay Liberation countercultures have on American society, why did they emerge and what were their objectives? One of the most distinctive countercultures of the very colorful decade of the 1960s were the hippies. The hippie’s counterculture developed during the 1960s in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. The hippies adopted the language and counterculture values from the Beats Generation. Their distinct style (bell bottom pants, brightly colored shirts and long loose hair on both men and women), their addictive use of LSD, and theirShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Disney Films Americanisation Of Disney Movies 1940 Words   |  8 PagesThis exchange leads to definition, expression and shaping of culture by dominant media corporations such as Walt Disney. Globalisation has been referred to Americanisation by most of its critics. They argue that globalisation is exportation of the American model to the world (Allan 89). 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However, the loud, smart mouthed, neck-rolling Black welfare mother is the popular image on reality television. The typical stereotype about Black men is the violent, misogynistic thug, and the

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Reign of Terror DBQ free essay sample

Stacy Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity The Kings blood flowed and cries of Joy from eight thousand armed men struck my ears. A man that witnessed the guillotining of King Louis XVI was left with this graphic image of a memorable event leading to the Reign of Terror. The Reign of Terror, otherwise known as the French Revolution, was an attempt to form a new government in France. The citizens of France fought against their government and made a new government led by Maximilen de Robespierre. This new government executed large numbers of individuals whom were enemies of the Revolution. This government went so far to preserve their vision of liberty and equality. France was violently demanding Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. Was it necessary to murder 30,000 by guillotining them in the middle of town square for everyone to witness? Did the 2,750 people sentenced to death without any evidence deserve their fate? The Reign of Terror was not Justified because of the reaction towards external threats, the treatment of internal threats, and the malevolent methods used by this new government to carry-out their vision of a perfect government. The fashion that the government handled external threats was to a greater extent than it should have been. Austria and Prussia were both afraid that the Revolution might spread to their countries. In September of 1792, war with Prussia and Austria begins (Doc A). An 80,000 man army of Austrian and Prussian marched into France. Fearing an attack, France declared war on Austria and Prussia. They began fighting for their countries power. Nearly 10,000 of Frances own army officers moved to the Austrian-controlled Netherlands. The  ©migr ©s allied themselves with Austria and Prussia. Frances goal in mind was to punish the French  ©migr ©s (Doc B). No matter what your view was as a French citizen, you had to be for the French army. If you were a French supporter of the Austrian and Prussian monarchies, you would be executed (Doc B). Executing the French supporters of the Austrian and Prussian was not appropriate for their own government to do. To be executed by ones own government would prove that you cant trust the leaders youre supposed to rely on. One of Frances major goals was Liberty. Liberty means freedom from external or oreign rule; independence. Is it not hypocritical for France to attempt to spread their own revolutionary ideals to somewhere other than their own country? By demanding liberty, France would have to participate in their own laws to accomplish a revolution. Not only did France handle external threats poorly, the internal threats were taken to a much greater extent. Frances government dealt with internal threats in unjustified ways. In April of 1793, counterrevolutionary revolts break out inside France (Doc A). The Vendee region was the focal point of the counterrevolutions. At his region, people against the Revolution fought for their rights. It is estimated that between 80,000 and 500,000 French citizens died in this battle. In October of 1793, Revolutionaries destroyed 1600 homes and beheaded 12 people in five minutes. This to themselves or completely change their own opinion. In 1793, revolutionaries abolished Sunday worship, Christmas, and Easter. It was then stated by a church official that a revolutionary took a copper crucifix which was on the altar and carried it mockingly, upside down on a cart, offering it to passers-by to spit on (Doc C). Another one of Frances main goals was Fraternity. Fraternity means an organization of laymen for religious or charitable purposes; sodality. If France was trying to establish Fraternity, why were they taking away one of its biggest factors of keeping everyone together? Once again, France is hypocritically not abiding by their own goals. The methods used by Frances government towards the Revolutionizing of their country were too extreme. Between 30,000 and 40,000 people were murdered in merciless ways. In March of 1793, a court of Justice called the Tribunal was established. The Tribunal members were appointed by the National Convention and they had complete power. The purpose of the Tribunal was to protect the public safety, yet the accused were denied any lawyers. If there was to be any suspicion, the accused would be sentenced to death without any evidence (while many were innocent) (Doc E). If you were ever to be caught as a counterrevolutionary, the guillotine would become your incontestable fate. The guillotine was a humane way to execute the criminals of the Revolution. It had a sharp blade which would decapitate its inmate. This event would take place in the middle of town square for all to see (Doc F). Frances last major goal of the Revolution was Equality. Equality means Justice. If it is Justice that the National Convention wanted, why were they acting contradictory to what they were saying? To have Justice is to have the right morals. Did France have the right morals when they were sentencing innocent people to death without any evidence? It is undeniable that France is not following their own reasons for a revolution, and cannot expect to have change if they do not act as they peak. Although the National Convention originally had good intentions, they used drastic measures to produce what was viewed as the perfect government. The treatment of external threats and internal threats was extreme, and the methods used were brutal. The concept of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity was positive, yet France failed to abide by their own goals. The murder of Robespierre announced the end of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was a victim of his own creation; he suffered from the fate of the guillotine.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Semantic Search Your Content 7 Things to Optimize

As search engine algorithms evolve, keyword-stuffed articles have become a thing of the past. With the arrival of semantic search, it’s now even more important for marketers to refine their content strategies for today’s sophisticated search engines. What is Semantic Search? In terms of search engines, semantics relates to the study of words and their logic. It allows Google and other search engines to identify the intent behind searches to deliver more relevant results, even if search queries don’t contain the exact keywords. It’s all about context. If a user searches for â€Å"Nocturnal Animals,† do they want to know about the film, or creatures that are active at night? To predict user intent, search engines now factor in the relationship between words in the query, spelling variations, previous searches, the user’s location, and trending topics. The programming also gathers data about click-throughs and bounce rates to improve future query results. This is why Google developed RankBrain, the artificial intelligence component of its Hummingbird algorithm. This machine learning technology enables the search engine to evaluate search behavior and teach itself how to deliver better results. Voice-search enabled digital assistants like Apple’s Siri and Microsoft’s Cortana are also changing the search engine landscape. ComScore estimates that by 2020, 50 percent of all searches will be voice searched. The Challenge for Content Marketers Content marketers need to adapt to these changes and learn how to optimize content for Google RankBrian and voice search. Understanding the intent behind users’ search queries is now the key to creating content that gets found online. Instead of focusing solely on keywords, you need to better understand the real meaning behind the questions users ask. It’s about delivering relevant and natural content that your target audience is looking for. How to Optimize Content for Semantic Search If you’re not producing quality content around the topics relevant to your audience, you have no real chance of being viewed as a valuable answer to search queries, and your search rankings will decrease. 1. Optimize Content for Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) LSI is a system that Google uses to identify keywords that surround the main keywords you use. It makes it easier to understand the context of your content and rank it accordingly, because Google already knows which LSI keywords the highest ranking content uses. This means that you should perform LSI keyword research to support your main keywords. To do this you can use LSIGraph to find related keywords, or make not of Google’s Related Searches suggestions. 2. Contextual Content It’s always been Google’s goal to deliver the highest quality content to searchers, so creating high-quality content will automatically help your semantic search rankings. Try to create well-written content that offers real value to your audience. Deliver more long-form content with competitive long-tail keywords, strong LSI meta tags and descriptions, and use semantic HTML markup to reinforce the context of each web page. Find out more here. 3. Branded Content Semantic SEO is improved if your brand has a strong online presence. To boost your visibility: Make sure all your web pages are mobile friendly. Optimize your content for local search queries. Include business details or author names in all your content. Build relationships with industry influencers. Promote your content using social share buttons. Create or update your profile on Google My Business. Deliver search engine-friendly press releases. 4. Optimize for Google’s Knowledge Graph Often referred to as â€Å"featured snippets† or â€Å"rich answers,† the Knowledge Graph uses semantic search to deliver more relevant results. To improve your chances of appearing on a Knowledge Graph: List your company on Wikipedia. See how to create your own Wikipedia page here. Create business profiles on Google Plus, YouTube, and LinkedIn. Add structured data – or schema markup – to your site. It makes it easier for search engines to crawl, organize, and display your content. 5. Optimize for Google’s Featured Snippets The Featured Snippet (previously known as Answer Box) is powered by Google’s Knowledge Graph and shows up in SERPs so that users get useful information without having to click on a link. To increase your chances of being a feature snippet: Create in-depth content that specifically answers questions your target audience are asking. Display the question in your content, and provide answers in step-by-step bullet form. Add all the relevant HTML markup. Answer common questions on your social media channels. Add a question and answer section to your website. 6. Optimize Internal Links Building a strong internal link structure will help to optimize your content for RankBrain. Use descriptive keywords in anchor texts to add context to the topics you’re covering. Find out more about internal linking best practices here. 7. Optimize for Voice Search Produce content that answers customers’ FAQs before they have to ask. Display your name, address, phone number, email, and opening hours on every web page. Also answer questions about your products and services, and explain your unique selling proposition to potential visitors. Final Thoughts Optimizing your content for semantic search involves various content marketing and SEO strategies. To improve your semantic search results, you need to look at all your online activity, from your website content, keywords, and links, to your social media channels, business listings, and even paid ads.Ask yourself: â€Å"What does my audience want to know?† and â€Å"How can I make my online content more useful?† Search engines will only get better at understanding natural language and the meaning behind search queries, so you should start optimizing for semantic search today. If you don’t, your search engine rankings may fall sooner than you think.